美国《海洋素养:K-12海洋科学教育的基本原则》,了解一下?

资源出处:http://oceanliteracy.wp2.coexploration.org/ocean-literacy-framework/

 

What is Ocean Literacy?

海洋素养是什么?

 

Ocean literacy is an understanding of the ocean’s influence on you—and your influence on the ocean.

海洋素养实际就是探究海洋与人类之间的相互影响。

 

An ocean-literate person:

  1. understands the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts about the functioning of the ocean;
  2. can communicate about the ocean in a meaningful way; and
  3. is able to make informed and responsible decisions regarding the ocean and its resources.

一个具有海洋素养的人:

  1. 理解海洋功能的根本原则和基本内容;
  2. 能围绕海洋进行有意义的交流沟通;
  3. 能合理利用海洋及其资源。

 

Developed through a community-wide consensus-building process, this definition along with the Essential Principles and supporting Fundamental Concepts build on previous efforts to define ocean literacy, assess what the public knows about the ocean, and redress the lack of ocean- related content in state and national science education standards, instructional materials and assessments.

在公共海洋意识的建立过程中,基本原则和基础概念的定义也在根据人们对海洋的认识不断发展,国家科学教育的相关内容标准、教学材料和教学评估也在不断完善。

 

The Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts outlined in this guide (inside) represent content that does not always fall neatly within particular disciplines. As a result, many Fundamental Concepts illustrate more than one Essential Principle. For example, Essential Principle 4 lists only two Fundamental Concepts; however, several others could be listed as well. This is unavoidable and demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of ocean sciences.

在这本书中所讲述的基本原则和基础概念均可以灵活运用,许多基础概念中包含了多项基本原则。例如基本原则4中列出了两项基础概念,然而也可以列出其它一些基础概念。这是不可避免的,并表明海洋科学的跨学科本质。

 

On our bule planet the dominant feature is ocean. Atlantic and Pacific, Indian, Arctic and Southern, these five great ocean basins contain 97 percent of Earth’s water. The vapor they release into the atmosphere returns as rain, sleet and snow, ever replenishing the planet with freshwater. All life, including our own, is dependent on the ocean. Understanding the ocean is integral to comprehending this planet on which we live.

我们所生活的这颗蓝色星球的主要部分便是海洋。大西洋和太平洋、印度、北极和南极,这五个大洋盆地包含了地球上97%的水。水蒸气升腾至大气中,变成了雨,冰雹和雪,以补充陆地上的淡水。地球上所有的生命,包括我们人类自己,都依赖于海洋生存。我们在地球上生活,了解海洋是十分必要的。

 

This guide presents a vision of an ocean-literate society. A practical resource for educators, it outlines the knowledge required to be considered ocean literate in accordance with the National Science Education Standards (NSES). These standards were designed to “guide our nation toward a scientifically literate society” [National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 1996.] and provide criteria to judge progress toward a national vision of science literacy. In developing the NSES, NAS invited science educators to add their unique perspectives on how to improve science education and science literacy. In a similar vein, we sought the perspectives and expertise of a cross-section of the ocean sciences and education communities.

这本书直观地展示了海洋世界,当中的内容按照美国国家科学教育标准(NSES)编写,是教学的实用素材。该标准的目标是“引领国家走入科学”(国家科学院科学(NAS,1996年),同时可以考量一个国家的整体科学素养。在NSES的发展过程中,NAS邀请了许多科学教育工作者提出了他们的独特观点以推动科学教育和科学素养的完善。与此同时,我们寻求能够纵观海洋科学的视角和有关教育交流圈子的专家意见。

 

Ocean literacy is defined by seven Essential Principles, supported by detailed Fundamental Concepts. Educators can use these Fundamental Concepts to fulfill the eight NSES content standards (see Matrix). They provide additional coordination, consistency and coherence for oceans sciences education and will transform a vision of ocean literacy into reality.

海洋素养由7个基本原则构建,背后均有基础概念的支撑。教育工作者们可以利用这些内容来满足8项NSES内容标准(见矩阵),它们具有协调一致性和连贯性,海洋科学教育将从愿景变为现实。

 

About this guide

关于这本书

 

Many scientists and science educators collaborated to produce this guide. A work in progress, it reflects our efforts to date defining ocean literacy and identifies the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of ocean science that should be included in K–12 curricula.

这本书由许多科学家和科学教育工作者编写,我们为了最终的教育目标精诚合作。K-12学段课程包含了海洋科学基本原则和基础概念。

 

We continue to seek input from colleagues toward consensus on what is essential for students to understand about our ocean planet. This effort is only the beginning. To find and comment on this document as well as obtain updates, revisions and details on how it was developed, please visit www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy.

我们将继续不断完善课程。让学生理解海洋对于这个星球的重要性是重中之重。如果您想获取更多细节,提出您的意见或帮助完善修改本书,请访问:www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy

 

For additional information regarding ocean literacy and ocean education resources, visit:

如需更多关于海洋素养和海洋教育资源的信息,请访问:


www.ngsednet.org/oceans

www.marine-ed.org

www.cosee.net

www.noaa.gov/education

 

Using the ocean as a teaching tool

利用海洋作为教学工具

 

The ocean covers most of our planet, is the source of most life on Earth, regulates our weather and climate, provides most of our oxygen, and feeds much of the human pop- ulation. Yet ocean and aquatic sciences are among the most underrepresented disciplines in K–12 educational curricula. Rarely taught at any level, concepts about the ocean, the coasts or the Great Lakes infrequently appear in K–12 curriculum materials, textbooks, assessments or standards.

海洋覆盖了地球的大部分,是地球上大多数生命的源泉。海洋能调节我们的天气和气候,为我们提供大部分氧气,海洋哺育了人类。然而,在K-12学段教育课程中海洋和水产科学却是最弱势的学科。有关海洋,海岸或五大湖的内容很少出现在K-12学段课程的材料、教科书或评估标准当中。

 

Educational standards can provide the leverage required to change the content of science education. Our current educational system is defined by the goal of alignment. Curriculum content, instruction and assessment all derive from accepted standards. If ocean sciences continue to be excluded from science standards, they will remain marginalized and efforts to incorporate them in curricula, texts and assessments will be stymied. If, however, science standards are revised to include ocean sciences, this will ensure their incorporation by textbook publishers, curriculum developers and assessment specialists.

教育标准能引导科学教育内容的改变。我们目前的教育系统被定义为目标教育,课程内容、教学和评估及所有相关内容都需要符合课程标准。如果海洋科学继续被排除在科学标准之外,海洋科学将仍然继续被忽视,被边缘化对待。课程标准的重新修订需要多方合作协调,包括教科书出版商,课程开发者,评估专家。

 

Those who are concerned about science education and about the future health of our ocean planet must actively promote the development of science standards by local educational agencies such as school boards and districts, state departments of education, and professional societies and associations. In order to be effective, we must agree upon and codify the essential science content and processes related to the ocean, the coasts and the Great Lakes.

那些关心科学教育和我们的海洋星球未来健康的人们必须积极推动如学校董事会和州教育部门和专业协会与联盟等当地教育机构制定科学教育标准。为了使有效,我们必须确定和编纂与海洋、海岸以及五大湖大湖相关的基本科学内容和过程。

 

OCEAN LITERACY: ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES AND FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

海洋素养:基本原则与基础概念

 

EACH ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLE IS SUPPORTED BY FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS COMPARABLE TO THOSE UNDERLYING THE NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS (NSES). CONSULT THE OVERVIEW MATRIX (ON NEXT PAGES) TO INTEGRATE OCEAN LITERACY INTO YOUR CURRICULUM.

每一个基本原则都有基础概念支撑,并符合国家科学教育标准 (NSES),下一页的内容将帮助你将海洋文化融入课程教学。

 

1 The Earth has one big ocean with many features.

1 地球拥有大面积的海洋,海洋拥有诸多特征

 

a  The ocean is the dominant physical feature on our planet Earth—covering approximately 70% of the planet’s surface. There is one ocean with many ocean basins, such as the North Pacific, South Pacific, North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Indian and Arctic.

a    海洋是地球表面的主要物理特性,约70%的地球表面被海洋覆盖。在这大面积的海洋中有许多海洋盆地,如北太平洋、南太平洋、北大西洋,南大西洋,印度洋和北冰洋。

 

b  An ocean basin’s size, shape and features (islands, trenches, mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys) vary due to the movement of Earth’s lithospheric plates. Earth’s highest peaks, deepest valleys and flattest vast plains are all in the ocean.

b    海洋盆地的大小,形状,特点(群岛、深谷、中脊,裂谷)都是因地球的岩石圈板块运动而形成的,地球上最高的山峰,最深的山谷和最平坦广阔的平原都在海洋当中。

 

c  Throughout the ocean there is one interconnected circulation system powered by wind, tides, the force of the Earth’s rotation (Coriolis effect), the Sun, and water density differences. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation.

c     海洋处于一个循环系统当中。该循环系统受风力、地球自转引起的潮汐力(科里奥利效应),太阳,和水密度的推动,海洋盆地形态和相邻土地的形状也会对其产生影响。

 

d  Sea level is the average height of the ocean relative to the land, taking into account the differences caused by tides. Sea level changes as plate tectonics cause the volume of ocean basins and the height of the land to change. It changes as ice caps on land melt or grow. It also changes as sea water expands and contracts when ocean water warms and cools.

d     海平面是海洋相对于陆地的平均高度,同时因潮汐影响会产生差异。海平面变化通常是由于板块构造引起的海洋盆地体积和陆地的高度变化。陆地上的冰盖融化会使海平面上涨。海水变暖或冷却时,海水体积也会扩张或收缩。

 

e  Most of Earth’s water (97%) is in the ocean. Seawater has unique properties: it is saline, its freezing point is slightly lower than fresh water, its density is slightly higher, its electrical conductivity is much higher, and it is slightly basic. The salt in seawater comes from eroding land, volcanic emissions, reactions at the seafloor, and atmospheric deposition.

e     地球上大部分的水(97%)都在海洋里。海水有其独特的基本特性:含盐度高,冰点略低于淡水,密度略高,导电率要高得多。海水中的盐分来自对土地的侵蚀,火山的排放,海底物质的化学反应,和大气沉积。

 

f  The ocean is an integral part of the water cycle and is connected to all of the earth’s water reservoirs via evaporation and precipitation processes.

f     海洋是大气水循环中不可分割的一部分,海洋中的水通过蒸发和降水过程同陆地的水连接起来。

 

g  The ocean is connected to major lakes, watersheds and waterways because all major watersheds on Earth drain to the ocean. Rivers and streams transport nutrients, salts, sediments and pollutants from watersheds to estuaries and to the ocean.

g     海洋同陆地中的主要湖泊、水域相互连接,陆地上所有主要流域的排水河道最后都流向海洋。河流和小溪运输着营养物质,盐分,和流域河口的沉积物和污染物,流向海洋。

 

h  Although the ocean is large, it is finite and resources are limited.
h     虽然海洋面积很大,但它的资源是有限的。

 

2 The ocean and life in the ocean shape the features of the Earth.

2 海洋和海洋里的生物参与塑造了陆地的形态特征

 

a  Many earth materials and geochemical cycles originate in the ocean. Many of the sedimentary rocks now exposed on land were formed in the ocean. Ocean life laid down the vast volume of siliceous and carbonate rocks.

a    地球上的许多物质和化学循环都起源于海洋,也有很多沉积岩暴露于海洋中的凸起陆地。海洋生物多栖息于巨大的硅酸岩和碳酸岩上。


b  Sea level changes over time have expanded and contracted continental shelves, created and destroyed inland seas, and shaped the surface of land.
b    海平面的不断变化会使大陆架扩展和收缩,造成内陆湖的产生或地表侵蚀。

 

c  Erosion—the wearing away of rock, soil and other biotic and abiotic earth materials—occurs in coastal areas as wind, waves, and currents in rivers and the ocean move sediments.
c     沿海地区的岩石,土壤,及其他有生命和无生命的物质均受到海风,流水冲击及海浪的侵蚀,变为海洋沉积物。

 

d  Sand consists of tiny bits of animals, plants, rocks and minerals. Most beach sand is eroded from land sources and carried to the coast by rivers, but sand is also eroded from coastal sources by surf. Sand is redistributed by waves and coastal currents seasonally.

d    沙子由细碎的动植物残骸、岩石和矿物质构成。大多数沙滩是因河流侵蚀土地而形成,也同样来自于海浪对沿海资源的侵蚀,后被海浪和季节性洋流带至不同地区。

 

e  Tectonic activity, sea level changes, and force of waves influence the physical structure and landforms of the coast.
e    板块运动、海平面变化和海浪的物理冲击均会影响海岸地形。

 

3 The ocean is a major influence on weather and climate.

3 海洋对天气和气候有主要影响

 

a  The ocean controls weather and climate by dominating the Earth’s energy, water and carbon systems.

a     海洋通过主导地球的能源、水和碳系统来控制天气和气候。

 

b  The ocean absorbs much of the solar radiation reaching Earth. The ocean loses heat by evaporation. This heat loss drives atmospheric circulation when, after it is released into the atmosphere as water vapor, it condenses and forms rain. Condensation of water evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones.

b     海洋能吸收到达地球的太阳辐射。海洋因水汽蒸发失去热量,这项热损失驱动了大气环流,后大气中水汽被释放,凝结形成降雨。在温暖的海洋中水汽的凝结为飓风和龙卷风提供能量。

 

c  The El Niño Southern Oscillation causes important changes in global weather patterns because it changes the way heat is released to the atmosphere in the Pacific.

c     厄尔尼诺现象引起了全球气候模式的重要变化,因为它改变了在太平洋地区被释放到大气中的热量。

 

d  Most rain that falls on land originally evaporated from the tropical ocean.

d     陆地上的降雨最终会流到热带海洋。

 

e  The ocean dominates the Earth’s carbon cycle. Half the primary productivity on Earth takes place in the sunlit layers of the ocean and the ocean absorbs roughly half of all carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere.

e     海洋主导了地球的碳循环。地球上几乎一半的二氧化碳初级产生发生在海洋被阳光照射的表层,海洋将吸收大约一半向大气中增加的二氧化碳。

 

f  The ocean has had, and will continue to have, a significant influence on climate change by absorbing, storing, and moving heat, carbon and water.

f      海洋通过吸收、储存热量,碳和水来对气候变化产生重要影响。

 

g  Changes in the ocean’s circulation have produced large, abrupt changes in climate during the last 50,000 years.

g     在过去的50000年里,海洋环流的巨大变化导致了气候的很大程度变化。

 

4 The ocean makes Earth habitable.

4 海洋使地球宜居

 

a Most of the oxygen in the atmosphere originally came from the activities of photosynthetic organisms in the ocean.

a    大气中大部分的氧气最初来自海洋中光合生物的活动。

 

b The first life is thought to have started in the ocean. The earliest evidence of life is found in the ocean.

b    生命始于海洋。在海洋中发现了最早的生物迹象。

 

5 The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems.

5 海洋为生物多样性及生态系统做出了很大贡献

 

a  Ocean life ranges in size from the smallest virus to the largest animal that has lived on Earth, the blue whale.

a   从最小的生物病毒到最大的生物蓝鲸,海洋生物包含了地球的大部分物种。


b  Most life in the ocean exists as microbes. Microbes are the most important primary producers in the ocean. Not only are they the most abundant life form in the ocean, they have extremely fast growth rates and life cycles.

b   海洋中存在量最大就是微生物。微生物是海洋中最重要的初级生产者。它们不仅是海洋中最丰富的生命形式,还有极快的增长速度和生命周期。

 

c  Some major groups are found exclusively in the ocean. The diversity of major groups of organisms is much greater in the ocean than on land.

c    一些生物群只生活在海洋。海洋内的生物群多样性比陆地上的要丰富得多。

 

d  Ocean biology provides many unique examples of life cycles, adaptations and important relationships among organisms (symbiosis, predator-prey dynamics and energy transfer)
that do not occur on land.

d    海洋生物学提供了许多独特的不会在陆地上发生的生命周期、适应性和生物体之间重要关系的例子(共生、捕食-猎物动态和能量转移)。

 

e  The ocean is three-dimensional, offering vast living space and diverse habitats from the surface through the water column to the seafloor. Most of the living space on Earth is in the ocean.

e    海洋是三维的。自水面到海底,海洋为生物提供了广阔的生存空间和多样化的栖息地。地球上大部分的生物生活空间都在海洋。

 

f  Ocean habitats are defined by environmental factors. Due to interactions of abiotic factors such as salinity, temperature, oxygen, pH, light, nutrients, pressure, substrate and circulation, ocean life is not evenly distributed temporally or spatially, i.e., it is “patchy”. Some regions of the ocean support more diverse and abundant life than anywhere on Earth, while much of the ocean is considered a desert.

f     海洋的栖息地属性是由环境因素决定的。由于盐度等非生物因素的相互作用,温度,氧份,pH值,光,营养,压力,基质和流通性都是相关因素。海洋中的生命并不是均匀分布的,而是“支离破碎”的。一些地区的海洋支持非常多的生物物种栖息,而有些地区的海洋却如同沙漠寥无生迹。 

 

g  There are deep ocean ecosystems that are independent of energy from sunlight and photosynthetic organisms. Hydrothermal vents, submarine hot springs, methane cold seeps, and whale falls rely only on chemical energy and chemosynthetic organisms to support life.

g     深海的生态系统是独立的,并不依靠于阳光和光合生物的能量,而是依靠岩浆喷口,海底温泉和甲烷冷渗透等能量。深海鲸鱼只依赖化学能源和化学合成的生物维持生命。

 

h  Tides, waves and predation cause vertical zonation patterns along the shore, influencing the distribution and diversity of organisms.

h     潮汐、海浪和捕捞导致了海岸沿线的垂直分带,影响物种分布和生物的多样性。

 

i  Estuaries provide important and productive nursery areas for many marine and aquatic species.

i      河口提供为许多水生物种提供良好的孕育幼子海域。

 

6 The ocean and humans are inextricably interconnected.

海洋与人类紧密联系

 

a  The ocean affects every human life. It supplies freshwater (most rain comes from the ocean) and nearly all Earth’s oxygen. It moderates the Earth’s climate, influences our weather, and affects human health.

a    海洋影响着每个人的生活,它供应陆地上的淡水(雨大部分来自海洋)和地球上的大部分氧气。海洋能使地球的气候变得温和,影响天气和人类的健康。

 

b  From the ocean we get foods, medicines, and mineral and energy resources. In addition, it provides jobs, supports our nation’s economy, serves as a highway for transportation of goods and people, and plays a role in national security.

b     人类从海洋中得到食物,药物,矿物质和能源资源。另外,海洋还为人类提供了工作,支持我们的国家经济,并作为货物和人的运输途径,在国家安全中发挥作用。

 

c  The ocean is a source of inspiration, recreation, rejuvenation and discovery. It is also an important element in the heritage of many cultures.

c     海洋是灵感,艺术,复兴,与新发现的源泉,也是许多文化遗产的重要来源。

 

d  Much of the world’s population lives in coastal areas.

d     大部分人口居住在沿海地区。

 

e  Humans affect the ocean in a variety of ways. Laws, regulations and resource management affect what is taken out and put into the ocean. Human development and activity leads to pollution (point source, non-point source, and noise pollution) and physical modifications (changes to beaches, shores and rivers). In addition, humans have removed most of the large vertebrates from the ocean.

e     人类在许多方面都影响着海洋。人类制定了许多法律,法规和资源管理规范用以减少对海洋的不良影响,但人类的发展和活动依然会导致海洋污染(点、面、和噪音污染)和物理变化(海滩,海岸和河流)。此外,人类的行为导致了大量大型脊椎动物从海洋中灭绝。

 

f  Coastal regions are susceptible to natural hazards(tsunamis, hurricanes, cyclones, sea level change, and storm surges).

f      沿海地区易受自然灾害影响(海啸,飓风、龙卷风、海平面变化和风暴潮)。

 

g  Everyone is responsible for caring for the ocean. The ocean sustains life on Earth and humans must live in ways that sustain the ocean. Individual and collective actions are needed to effectively manage ocean resources for all.

g     每一个人都有责任保护海洋。海洋孕育着地球上的生命,人类也必须以必要方式保护海洋。无论是个体还是组织,都需要有效地管理海洋资源。

 

7 The ocean is largely unexplored.

7 还有大部分海洋资源未被探索开发

 

a  The ocean is the last and largest unexplored place on Earth— less than 5% of it has been explored. This is the great frontier for the next generation’s explorers and researchers, where they will find great opportunities for inquiry and investigation.

a     大海是地球上最后,也是最大的未被开发的地方。人类只探索到海洋不到5%的领域。这是下一代的探险家和研究人员探索的伟大前沿,在海洋当中,他们将有很多发现与研究的机会。

 

b  Understanding the ocean is more than a matter of curiosity. Exploration, inquiry and study are required to better understand ocean systems and processes.

b     了解海洋并不简单。海洋的勘探、调查和研究需要人们更好地了解海洋的生态系统和发展过程。

 

c  Over the last 40 years, use of ocean resources has increased significantly, therefore the future sustainability of ocean resources depends on our understanding of those resources and their potential and limitations.

c      在过去的40年里,人类对海洋资源的使用不断增加。值得注意的是,海洋的未来可持续发展取决于我们对这些资源的了解。我们应当深入了解海洋资源和它们的潜力和局限性。

 

d  New technologies, sensors and tools are expanding our ability to explore the ocean. Ocean scientists are relying more and more on satellites, drifters, buoys, subsea observatories and unmanned submersibles.

d     提升我们的技术水平,利用传感器和工具提高探索海洋的能力。目前越来越多的海洋科学家们使用卫星、漂网(或流网)渔船、浮标、水下天文台和无人潜水器等工具来探索海洋。

 

e  Use of mathematical models is now an essential part of ocean sciences. Models help us understand the complexity of the ocean and of its interaction with Earth’s climate. They process observations and help describe the interactions among systems.

e     在海洋科学研究中,使用数学模型是现在必不可少的一种方式。模型能帮助我们理解海洋与地球的气候的复杂交互,并帮助我们观察及描述其交互过程。

 

f  Ocean exploration is truly interdisciplinary. It requires close collaboration among biologists, chemists, climatologists, computer programmers, engineers, geologists, meteorologists, and physicists, and new ways of thinking.

f      海洋探险真的是一门跨学科的研究,需要气候学家,生物学家,化学家,,计算机程序员、工程师、地质学家、气象学家和物理学家之间的亲密协作,并加入新的思维方式。

 

Further information

更多信息

 

For future revisions and changes to this document or to see documentation of the process used to develop this brochure, please visit 

对于本文档的未来修订和更改或查看用于开发本手册的过程的文档,请访问:

www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy

 

In addition, further information relating to ocean literacy and ocean resources can be found at:

此外,在以下网址还可以找到有关海洋知识和海洋资源的进一步资料:

www.ngsednet.org/oceans

www.marine-ed.org

www.cosee.net

www.noaa.gov/education

评论

简直太有用了。本科专业海洋科学、硕士专业海洋地质的区区在下,一直没有放弃制作一套海洋科普课程的理想。this helps a lot