为教育而译:早期教育中的计算机科学

英文原文链接 https://k12cs.org/pre-k/   

译者:詹娜

 

Computer Science in Early Childhood Education

早期教育中的计算机科学

 

The full version of this chapter can be found in the complete K–12 Computer Science Framework. An accompanying review of the research can be found in Appendix B.

 

本章的完整版可以在完整的《 K-12年级计算机科学框架》中找到。 相关的研究回顾可以在附录 B 中找到。

 

Integrating computer science-related practices into early childhood education is not a departure from traditional notions of developmentally appropriate practice; rather, computer science supports play-based pedagogy, extends what educators are already doing in their classrooms, and guides young learners to notice, name, and recognize how computing shapes their world. In this way, pre-K brings computer science to life, preparing kids for the larger K–12 framework. Computer science is well-suited for early childhood education as it offers a learning environment where young children can “play to learn while learning to play” (Resnick, 2003).

 

将计算机科学相关的实践融入儿童早期教育并没有背离发展适宜性实践的传统观念; 相反,计算机科学支持基于游戏的教学法,扩展教育工作者在课堂上已经在做的事情,并引导低龄学习者注意、命名识别计算是如何塑造他们的世界的。 通过这种方式,幼儿园使计算机科学变得生动有趣,让孩子们为更大的K-12年级框架做好准备。 计算机科学非常适合早期教育,因为它提供了一个学习环境,低龄儿童可以“边玩边学”(Resnick,2003)。


 

Powerful Ideas in Pre-K Computer Science

幼儿园学段计算机科学中的“强大概念”

 

The K–12 Computer Science Framework draws on Seymour Papert’s “powerful ideas” to articulate specific computer science concepts and practices for the K–12 learning environment. This section outlines a set of “powerful ideas” specific to early childhood education.

 

《K-12年级计算机科学框架》借鉴了 Seymour Papert 的“强大概念” ,阐明了K-12年级学习环境中的具体计算机科学概念和实践。 本节概述了一系列针对早期教育的“强大概念”。

 

As outlined in the graphic below, four powerful ideas are embedded within the core content areas of math, literacy, and science, and the fifth—social and emotional learning—is understood as a holistic frame for all early childhood educational practices. Further, these powerful ideas are encompassed by the pedagogical bedrock of early learning environments: play.

 

如下图所示,四个“强大概念”被嵌入于数学、读写和科学三大核心内容领域,第五个“强大概念”——社交与情感学习——应被理解为一个所有幼儿教育实践的整体框架。 此外,这些“强大概念”包含在早期学习环境的教学基石——游戏——之中。

 

 

These five ideas are outlined below and frame computer science as a natural extension that builds on what educators already do in their daily practice.

 

如下为这五个概念的概述,它们将计算机科学界定为一种建立于教育者已做的日常实践之上的自然延伸。

 

1. Social and Emotional Learning

1. 社交和情感学习

 

Children develop social and emotional skills through playful interactions with peers and adults, and research continually shows these interactions can have significant impacts on children’s learning and development. These strong affective, behavioral, and cognitive competencies provide the foundation for successful learning and development.

 

儿童通过与同龄人和成年人的玩耍互动发展社交和情感技能,并且研究不断表明,这些互动会对儿童的学习和发展产生重大影响。 这些强大的情感性能力、行为性能力与认知性能力为成功的学习和发展提供了基础。

 

 

Framework Connections: 

P1.Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture,

P2.Collaborating Around Computing, and 

P7.Communicating About Computing

 

联系《 K-12年级计算机科学框架》:

P1. 培养一种包容性的计算文化,P2. 围绕计算的协作,P7. 关于计算的沟通交流

 

Within the context of the framework, practices 1, 2, and 7 encompass being able to work and communicate with teams with lots of differing perspectives. Teachers can foster an inclusive computing environment by presenting opportunities for students to share, collaborate, and support one another. In computer science, the best products are created by teams consisting of members with varied backgrounds who listen to and respect one another’s ideas. Additionally, computer science is more than just creating products; it involves effectively communicating (verbally and visually) processes and solutions to a broader audience. These principles can be developed in the pre-K classroom by fostering children’s social and emotional development through play.

 

在框架的上下文中,实践1、2和7包含了能够与具有许多不同视角的团队一起工作和交流。 教师可以通过为学生提供分享、合作和相互支持的机会,培养一个包容的计算环境在计算机科学领域,最好的产品是由不同背景的成员组成的团队创造出来的,他们倾听并尊重彼此的想法。 此外,计算机科学不仅仅是创造产品,它还包括与更广泛的受众有效地沟通交流(语言方面和视觉方面)流程和解决方案。在幼儿园课堂中,我们可以通过在玩耍的过程中培养孩子的社交和情感能力的方式来践行这些原则。

 

2. Patterns

2. 模式

 

Patterns help us make sense of the world by organizing objects and information using common features (e.g., color, shape, size). In computer science, patterns allow people to reduce complexity by generalizing and applying solutions to multiple situations. Learning about patterns in the early years can build a foundation for developing and using abstractions (e.g., defining and calling procedures), solving computational problems more effectively (e.g., using loops instead of repeating commands), and making inferences (e.g., using models and simulations to draw conclusions).

 

通过利用共同的特征(如颜色、形状、大小)来组织对象和信息,模式可以帮助我们理解世界。 在计算机科学中,通过概括将解决方案应用于多种情况下,模式使人们降低复杂性成为可能。 在早期阶段学习关于模式的知识,可以为未来建立和使用抽象(如定义和调用过程)更有效地解决计算问题(如使用循环代替重复命令)以及进行推理(如利用模型和模拟得出结论)奠定基础。

 

 

Framework Connections: P4. Developing and Using Abstractions

 

联系《 K-12年级计算机科学框架》: P4. 建立和使用抽象

 

One aspect of developing and using abstractions is the ability to categorize items/objects/code and identify general attributes based on those categorizations (or “abstract” out more general patterns to describe the categorizations).

 

建立和使用抽象的一个方面是能够对项目 / 对象 / 代码进行分类,并基于这些分类识别一般属性(或者“抽象”出更一般的模式来描述分类)。

 

3. Problem Solving

3. 解决问题

 

Young children naturally engage in problem-solving processes in their daily lives as they explore and interact with the world around them. Teachers can help make problem solving “visible” by asking questions to uncover children’s reasoning and thought processes (e.g., How did you know that? What made you think that?) as well as offering structured methods to scaffold children’s problem solving. One such method often used in computer science is an iterative development process. This process involves identifying a problem; devising and testing solutions; evaluating the results; and revising and redoing to find the best solution.

 

当年幼的儿童探索并与周围的世界互动时,他们自然地被日常生活中的问题解决过程吸引。 教师可以通过提问以揭示孩子们的推理和思维过程(例如,你是怎么知道的? 你怎么会这么想呢?) 以及通过提供结构化的方法为孩子们在解决问题的过程中提供脚手架让解决问题的过程可视化 计算机科学中经常使用的一种方法是迭代开发流程。 这个流程包括识别问题设计和测试解决方案评估结果以及修改和重做以找到最佳解决方案

 

 

Framework Connections: 

P3.Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems,

P5.Creating Computational Artifacts, and 

P6.Testing and Refining Computational Artifacts

 

联系《 K-12年级计算机科学框架》: P3.识别和定义可计算问题, P5.创造计算制品, and P6. 测试和改进计算制品

 

In one sense, computer science is the study of problems, problem-solving processes, and the solutions that result from such processes. Engaging in problem-solving activities early on can set the foundation for recognizing and defining computational problems, engaging in testing and refinement strategies, and developing and evaluating computational solutions to real-world problems.

 

从某种意义上说,计算机科学是关于问题、解决问题的过程以及由这些过程产生的解决方案的研究。 尽早参与解决问题的活动可以为未来识别和定义可计算问题、从事测试和改进策略以及针对现实世界问题开发和评价计算解奠定基础。

 

4. Representation

4. 表征

 

Any language that has a print version is an example of how language can be represented. In the case of English, the language is represented by words or word parts, which denote sounds and meanings. Similarly, computational languages are represented by numbers, text, and symbols.

 

任何一种有印刷版本的语言都是语言可以被如何表征的例子。 就英语而言,这种语言由能够表示声音和意义的词语或词根表征。 类似地,计算机语言由数字、文本和符号表征。

 

 

Framework Connections: 

P4.Developing and Using Abstractions,

P5.Creating Computational Artifacts, and 

P7.Communicating About Computing

 

联系《 K-12年级计算机科学框架》: P4. 建立和使用抽象,P5. 创造计算制品,P7. 关于计算的沟通交流

 

Understanding representation in the early years can build a foundation for understanding how computers represent information and simulate the behavior of systems, both of which are important for developing and using abstractions. Additionally, the creation of computational artifacts involves developing simulations and visualizations that require an understanding of how computers represent data, and effective communication about computing involves presenting information through visual representations (e.g., storyboards, graphs).

 

在早期阶段理解表征,可以为未来理解计算机如何表征信息以及如何模拟系统的行为奠定基础,这两者对于建立和使用抽象都很重要。 此外,计算制品的创造涉及开发仿真模拟和可视化,这需要理解计算机如何进行数据表征,关于计算的有效沟通交流涉及通过可视化表征(如故事板、图表)呈现信息

 

5. Sequencing

5. 排序

 

Children often learn about sequence through early literacy and math. For example, children learn that stories follow a sequence (beginning, middle, end). Similarly, sequencing is explored through ordinal numbers (first, second, third) as well as size and magnitude (smallest to largest). In computer science, sequencing is an important foundation for algorithms, which are precise sets of instructions that computers follow to accomplish a specific task. It is critical that people give instructions in the proper sequence because computers do exactly what they are programmed to do; if the instructions are not sequenced properly, the algorithm will not achieve the desired result.

 

孩子们通常通过早期识字和数学来学习序列。 例如,孩子们学会了故事都遵循一个顺序(开始、中间、结束)。 类似地,孩子们通过序数词(第一、第二、第三)以及大小和量级(从小到大)来探索排序。 在计算机科学中,排序是算法的一个重要基础,算法是计算机为了完成一项特定任务所遵循的精确指令集合。 至关重要的是人们应按照正确的顺序给出指令,因为计算机完全按照人们编写的程序工作; 如果指令的顺序不正确,算法将无法达到预期的结果。

 

 

Framework Connections: 

P3.Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems,

P4.Developing and Using Abstractions, and

P5.Creating Computational Artifacts

 

联系《 K-12年级计算机科学框架》: P3. 识别和定义可计算问题,P4. 建立和使用抽象,P5. 创造计算制品

 

Learning about sequencing in the early years can build a foundation for learning one of the five core concepts of the framework, Algorithms and Programming—key ideas in computational problem solving, abstraction, and artifact creation.

 

在早期阶段学习排序,可以为未来学习本框架中的五个核心概念之一——算法和编程——奠定基础,它们是解决计算问题、抽象和创造制品的关键思想。

 

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